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Child mortality in Middle Ages in Viminacium (Serbia)


Lead Author: Šarkić Nataša

Affiliation: Autonomous University of Madrid

In most human societies, children, especially those under 5 years, are the most sensitive and at the same time the most protected group. For this reason, child mortality is one of the most important indicators of health and wellbeing of a populations from the past. In a necropolis found in archaeological site Viminacium (Kostolac, Serbia),


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Newborn and deer remains in a pit of the prehistoric site from Fulgeriș (Bacău County, Romania)


Lead Author: Bejenaru Luminita

Affiliation: “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iași

The archaeological researches, conducted several years at the site of Fulgeris (Bacău County, Romania), revealed many dwellings of Chalcolithic (Cucuteni Culture), and pits belonging to the same culture, but also to Early Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The pit no. 52 (Figure 1) has been investigated in the 2014 archaeological campaign, and it appeared small


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Children, sacrifice, and the house: the case study of Archaic Italy


Lead Author: Piccioni Aura

Affiliation: University Tor Vergata Roma

Domestic cults were widespread in Archaic central and Southern Italy, and developed in various forms, depending on the cult purpose they intended to fulfill. In some of them were involved also children, at least in a passive form, as one can notice from the archaeological evidence coming from the houses. Among these, in fact, there


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A method for assessing the age-at-death of infants based on craniofacial measurements


Lead Author: Evteev Andrej

Affiliation: Anuchin Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology (Lomonosov Moscow State University)

The estimation of age of infant skeletons is usually based on the dental development and, to a lesser extent, on the postcranial metrics. The former is considered more reliable due to its stronger genetic determination and lesser susceptibility to the influence of environmental factors. But numerous studies show that dental development also displays a high


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Child death in Middle Ages: medieval necropolis discovered at Piatra Neamț-Dărmăneşti (Neamț County, Romania)


Lead Author: Groza Vasilica-Monica

Affiliation: “Olga Necrasov” Center of Anthropological Research, Romanian Academy – Iași Branch, Romania

The archaeological excavations carried out in the medieval necropolis at Piatra Neamţ-Dărmăneşti, in 2012, led to the identification of 27 burial tombs (23 individual tombs and 4 double tombs, from which 32 human skeletons have been recovered. Few of the tombs had inventory, according to which the necropolis was dated to the 14th-15th centuries. The


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Childhood health in Copper Age – an example from Potočani, northern Croatia


Lead Author: Novak Mario

Affiliation: Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb

In this paper we present an insight into childhood health in a skeletal sample recovered from a Copper Age mass burial located in Potočani near Požega in northern Croatia. The pit containing multiple skeletons was accidentally discovered during the field survey of the Požega Valley in 2007. Cultural remains found in the pit included broken


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Child burials in the cemeteries of the La Tène and Early Roman periods. Perspectives of cremated burials study


Lead Author: Slobodyan Tanya

Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, Department of Bioarchaeology, Kyiv

The paper presents the main results of the analysis and interpretation of child cremated burials from the La Tène and Early Roman period in Eastern Europe (Przeworsk, Lipica, and Zarubintsy cultures), which have been investigated in complex – both archaeologically and anthropologically. An attempt was made to determine the possible variability in the grave goods


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The life of children in the area of Medieval and Early Modern Podravina – a bioarchaeological view of the village of Torčec


Lead Author: Bedic Željka

Affiliation: Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Anthropological Centre, Zagreb

Northwest of today’s village Torčec in Podravina (Croatia) lies the archaeological site Torčec-Cirkvišče. The parish cemetery and modest remains of the sacral architecture at this site were excavated during 2002, 2009, and from 2011 to 2016. A total of 453 graves, which can be dated from the mid-12th century to 1731/1733 based on the stratigraphy,


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Health status of children in Timacum Minus, Dacia Ripensis (Eastern Serbia)


Lead Author: Petkovic Sofija

Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade

Timacum Minus is a Roman fortification and settlement in Eastern Serbia dated from the 1st to the mid-5th century AD. One of its necropolises is situated at the eastern slope of the Slog hill. There were two horizons of burial at this necropolis – Late Roman, from the mid-4th to the mid-5th century (phase I:


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Children from historical Toruń in Poland


Lead Author: Mucha Natalia

Affiliation: Nicolaus Copernicus University

Human skeletal remains discovered in archeological works provide unique information on life of primeval populations, populations from the early years of the Middle Ages and contemporary societies. Anthropological research gives possibilities of getting acquainted with existence of such entities, but also with whole groups of people from the previous centuries. Additionally, using historical and archeological


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The ritual of the tile in the Northwester Lombardy cemetery areas. A particular burial practice of children


Lead Author: Licata Marta

Affiliation: Centre of Research of Osteoarchaeology and Paleopathology, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

During the last archaeological excavation in the medieval cemetery of San Biagio in Cittiglio (Varese, Northern Italy), we found several tombs of neonatal and fetal individuals contained inside of tiles. In this context, the corpse was probably wrapped in a shroud and placed on a clay tile. An upper clay tile closed the burial. This


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About Sarmatian Children Graves in Wallachia and Moldavia


Lead Author: Ota Liana

Affiliation: “Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest

A few years ago, I tried to outline the main characteristics of Sarmatian burials supposed to belong to children found in Wallachia. At first glance, the issue appeared rather unsuitable for a detailed analysis, due to many difficulties: finds that have been mentioned decades ago, but still waiting to be published in a thorough manner;


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Characteristics of funerary ritual for children on necropoles of Viminacium


Lead Author: Dankovic Ilija

Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade

Necropoles of Viminacium, capital of Roman province of Upper Moesia, are being excavated since 1970s. Since then, more than 13000 graves were found, with almost 19000 artefacts discovered inside them. Such corpus of data presents unique opportunity for studying funerary rituals in antiquity. Necropoles were in function from the end of the I until the


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Ancient Near Eastern Pediatrics: Children Health and Causes of Death from the Archaeological Context and the Medical Texts Collections


Lead Author: Pezzulla Nadia

Affiliation: University of Rome "La Sapienza", Rome

This speech aims to analyse the child’s health in the Ancient Near East, using both ancient medical texts and data sources from the archeaeological context. The structure of the speech is articulated in 4 parts: the birth and first care of the newborns, early childhood diseases, hygiene practices and nutrition, causes of death and death


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Is affective parenthood a modern invention? A reassessment of Ariès against the background of Roman Imperial and 19th century epitaphs for children


Lead Author: Rubel Alexander

Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, Iaşi

In the wake of P. Ariès study on childhood a majority of scholars holds that the concept of childhood is a modern invention and that pre-modern societies in general (the proves are from the middle ages) would not have cared about the premature death of children, as parents nowadays do since the bourgeois era. At


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Childhood charms. Animal remains and representations from Mesolithic child burials in Northern Europe


Lead Author: Pasaric Maja

Affiliation: UCD School of Archaeology, Belfield, Dublin

This contribution examines animal remains, objects made from animal remains and animal representations found in relation with child burials in the Mesolithic of Northern Europe. These finds have often been given general and brief interpretations. For example, objects made from animal remains, such as tooth pendants and necklaces have usually been interpreted simply as decorations,


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Case study of Modern children coffins from archaeological explorations (Poland)


Lead Author: Majorek Magdalena

Affiliation: The Institute of Archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń

Antiquity and the Middle Ages did not recognize childhood. It was as late as the modern period when a child was noticed and the necessity of its development care and its personality shaping found its place in general thinking. Centuries from 16th till 18th still characterize with huge rate of mortality of the youngest. Every


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Malnutrition and vitamin deficiency: childhood scurvy and anemias in Bronze Age populations of North Caucasus


Lead Author: Berezina Nataliya

Affiliation: Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Moscow State University

In North Caucasus Bronze Age, subadult skeletons represent rare findings. Thus, these findings are of a particular significance for the study of Bronze Age populations, usually represented mostly by burials of males. Investigation of different nutritional deficiency markers on subadult skeletons can help to reconstruct lifestyle of Bronze Age human groups living in different climatic


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Skeletal growth and development of the children from Vistula Pomerania and Kuyavia (Poland) in the Middle Ages and modern times as a measure of the state of health and standard of living


Lead Author: Krajewska Magdalena

Affiliation: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Biology and Environment Protection, Department of Anthropology, Toruń

Analysis of differences in skeletal profiles of bone growth in subfossil populations provides important information about the health status and biological status of these groups. The basis of analysis in the study of growth models in prehistoric and historical populations is based on the metric characteristics of bone growth profiles. The aim of this paper


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Where are the Children? Late Neolithic Barrows in the Landscapes of the Polish Carpathians


Lead Author: Pelisiak Andrzej

Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, University of Rzeszów

The central monumental form for much of the eastern part of the Polish Carpathians in the III millennia BC are the round barrows of the Corded Ware culture. These barrows are located in a prominent position of the landscape: on the top of the hill ridges up to 500 m a.s.l. They are generally round


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Mesolithic childhood – a view from the Iron Gates


Lead Author: Boroneant Adina

Affiliation: “Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest

Recent research, as well as interdisciplinary approaches and new methodologies applied to earlier archaeological collections, allowed for a clearer view of the Mesolithic life and death along the Danube banks in the Iron Gates area. Among the +450 burials in the area, a small but significant number belongs to children, these burials being so far


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Children of the Old Kyiv. Vestiges of Diseases on the bones from Medieval and Postmedieval Town


Lead Author: Kozak Alexandra

Affiliation: Department of Bioarchaeology, Institute of Archaeology, Ukrainian Academy of Science, Kyiv

Children health in a palaeopopulation strictly depends on the level of ecological, economical or psychological stresses inside the community. These were provoked by social conflicts, including wars, as well as transformation of the lifestyle, in our case from country style to urban one. During the 10-13 century Kiev grew into the cultural, political and economical


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Analysis of spine ‘stress’ markers in subadults from Lchashen Late Bronze Age archaeological site in Armenia


Lead Author: Karapetian Marina

Affiliation: Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Various ‘stress’ markers are used in bioarchaeology to assess life conditions and overall health of a group. Stress markers often scored on subadults include such traits as porotic hyperostosis, enamel hypoplasia or traumas. The spine, however, is not a frequent object of analysis in subadults. Yet, its condition can provide us with some additional information


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Burials of infants in molded vessels from the cult complex of Taraktash II in Crimea, Ukraine


Lead Author: Potekhina Inna

Affiliation: Institute of Archaeology, Department of Bioarchaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv

The paper deals with infant burials in molded pots found under the walls of residential buildings near the late antique (I-III centuries) sanctuary in the South-East Crimea. It also considers the question of children’s ritual sacrifices in Taraktash II, suggested by the authors of the excavations. The idea of children’s sacrifices in the North Pontic


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Little forever through the centuries: burials of children in Mexico, from prehistory to prehispanic times


Lead Author: Carbajal Gracia

Affiliation: National School of Anthropology and History, Ciudad de Mexico

If there´s a common fact in life, no matter the place or condition, certainly is the death, and children are not the exception. We use to perceive their pass away as a disgrace or tragedy, holding an occidental idea of childhood delicate and innocent that never works, suffer or starve. But that fact is recently


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Children of the Avars. Children graves of the 6th-8th century cemeteries of Kölked (South-West Hungary)


Lead Author: Zsófia RÁCZ

Affiliation: Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Archaeological Sciences, Budapest

In this paper we would like to present the first results of a project which aims to examine child graves of the Avar period Carpathian Basin both from an archaeological and from an anthropological point of view. In this presentation we are dealing with the cemeteries ‘A’ and ‘B’ of Kölked from South-West Hungary. These


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Anthropoecology of immature population of Lower Volga of Sarmatian era (IV century BC – IV century AD)


Lead Author: Vladimirovich Pererva

Affiliation: Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Science Department; Volgograd

The article contains the results of paleopathological analysis of bone remains of 58 children and adolescents of the early Sarmatian (IV-I centuries BC), 21 individuals of the middle Sarmatian (I-II centuries AD) and 8 skeletons of the late Sarmatian (II-IV centuries AD) from the territory of the Lower Volga. During the research the technique of


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A double burial in the Medieval Avarian necropolis of Čik (Serbia): a grave of a mother and a baby


Lead Author: Dukic Ksenija

Affiliation: Laboratory for Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade

Čik is an archaeological site located on the outskirts of the city of Bečej, within the city zone (Northwestern Serbia). This area represents an excellent example of a place that served as a settlement during several prehistoric and historical periods. Systematic archaeological excavations were conducted on several occasions from 1968 to 1972. The majority of


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Children’s burials of Byzantine period from excavations of Thessaloniki


Lead Author: Gouidis Charilaos

Affiliation: Department of Antiquities, The prefecture of Pieria in Central Macedonia, Greece

Nowdays, small or larger technical projects are perhaps the greatest opportunity to acquire archaeological knowledge especially in places with uninterrupted continuity of habitation. This is the case of the city of Thessaloniki, which is one of the largest cities of the modern Greek state. At the same time, it has been a great city since


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Childbirth complications in the Early Middle Ages: A case study of skeletal remains from the Migration period in Transylvania


Lead Author: Brozou Anastasia

Affiliation: Aarhus University

During the past few decades, the increase of the caesarean section has reduced the high mortality rate of childbirth complications. In the medieval period, however, the lack of advanced medical technology connected with the high risks of labour must have been a fatal combination for both mother and foetus. Surprisingly, this is contradicted by the


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Infant burials from the Scythian necropolis at Sâncrai (Alba county), Romania


Lead Author: Baltes Gabriel

Affiliation: "1 Decembrie 1918"University of Alba Iulia

The rescue excavations carried out in 2016 in the Scythian necropolis at Sâncrai (Alba county), led to the identification of 90 graves (70 individual tombs and 2 double tombs), from which 74 human skeletons have been recovered. One of these is M63 which exhibited a double infant burial (Fig. 1). 82 of the tombs had


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